This proposed register has received support from both the ruling National Party and the opposition Labour Party. This is contrary to media depictions of stranger assaults or child molesters who kidnap children unknown to them. In general, in states applying risk-based registry schemes, low-risk Tier I offenders are often excluded from the public disclosure. In , a murder registry was proposed in Rhode Island and an animal abuser registry was proposed in Pennsylvania. While these disparities in level of public disclosure among different states might cause unexpected problems after registration, they have also caused some registrants to move into locations where public disclosure of lower level offenders is not permitted, in order to avoid public persecution and other adverse effects of public disclosure they were experiencing in their original location. According to a Department of Justice study, 5. Some states exclude low tier offenders from public registries while in others, all offenders are publicly listed. In addition, registrants are often subject to restrictions that bar loitering, working or living within exclusion zones that sometimes cover entire cities and have forced registrants into encampments, such as the Julia Tuttle Causeway sex offender colony. Other countries do not make sex offender information public, unless the risk assessment has been conducted and the offender has been determined to pose a high risk of re-offending.
News reports in revealed that some registered sex offenders were living outside or under the Julia Tuttle Causeway in Miami, Florida because Miami-Dade County ordinances, which are more restrictive than Florida's state laws, made it virtually impossible for them to find housing. In some jurisdictions, they cannot live within a certain distance of places children or families gather. A study by professors from Columbia University and the University of Michigan found that having police-only sex offender registries e. According to a Department of Justice study, 5. The study also showed that blocks in Washington DC where sex offenders lived did not have higher molestation rates than blocks where sex offenders did not live. Facebook and Instagram prohibit any convicted sex offender from accessing or contributing to their websites. Determining the tier level and whether or not a person would be subject to public disclosure, when relocating to another state, can be close to impossible without consulting an attorney or officials responsible for managing registration in the destination state, due to constantly changing laws and vagueness in some states legislative language. Several challenges to some parts of state level sex offender laws have succeeded, however. In the United States offenders are often classified in three categories: Sex offender registries in the United States Sign at the limits of Wapello, Iowa ; sex offender-free districts appeared as a result of Megan's Law. People listed on the register are prohibited from working with children or mentally disabled people, from managing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and from being foster parents or adoptive parents. If a felon in Florida is convicted of enough non-sexual felonies in a certain period of time, however, they are required to register for the rest of their life on a "Habitual Offender" registry that is available to the general public. Residency restrictions may even cause a sex offender's family to be homeless. This made Agan question whether creating sex offender registries was a rational idea. Information pertaining to names, addresses, physical description and vehicles are made public via official websites. Regardless of whether they are at work, offenders must extinguish all outside residential lighting and post a sign stating, "No candy or treats at this residence - sex offender at this residence". However political lobby group the Sensible Sentencing Trust has criticised the proposed register for its lack of public access. In some states, they may also be barred from voting after a sentence has been completed and, at the federal level, barred from owning firearms, like all felons. In the late s, a study showed that Indiana sex offenders have recidivism of about 1. Florida requires all felons, regardless of the crime, to register with law enforcement for 5 years after release, although the Florida felon registry is not available to the general public. At least one state Illinois reclassifies all registrants moving in the state into the highest possible tier Sexual Predator , regardless of the original tier of the person, leading to a lifetime registration requirement and being publicly labelled as a "Sexual Predator". These crimes are rarely reported in the media or prosecuted. In New York specifically, kidnapping and unlawful imprisonment are registerable offenses only if the victim is under 17 and the offender is not a parent of the victim. Sex offenders' spouses and children can also face harassment and financial hardship as a result of their loved one's sex offender status. The Human Rights Watch organization criticized these laws in a page report published in ,  and in another report in United Kingdom[ edit ] In the United Kingdom, the Violent and Sex Offender Register ViSOR is a database of records of those required to register with the Police under the Sexual Offences Act , those jailed for more than 12 months for violent offences, and unconvicted people thought to be at risk of offending. It will also include individuals who have been granted name suppression.
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