Marine Corps also rely on the height and circumference method. A sum over the entire image enables calculation of the overall body composition. Different BIA analysers may vary. Internal and external cross-validation of the prediction formulas showed that they gave valid estimates of body fat in males and females at all ages. The light is reflected from the underlying muscle and absorbed by the fatileur. A computer can subtract one image from the other, and the difference indicates the amount of fat relative to other tissues at each point. For each individual in the sample, the method's measurements are recorded, and that individual's body density is also recorded, being determined by, for instance, under-water weighing, in combination with a multi-compartment body density model. Most modern body composition laboratories today use the value of 1.
Different BIA analysers may vary. From this data, a formula relating the body measurements to density is developed. Consequently, the body fat percentage calculated from skin folds or other anthropometric methods carries the cumulative error from the application of two separate statistical models. Each bare foot may be placed on an electrode, with the current sent up one leg, across the abdomen and down the other leg. The light is reflected from the underlying muscle and absorbed by the fatileur. Ultrasound equipment is expensive, and not cost-effective solely for body fat measurement, but where equipment is available, as in hospitals, the extra cost for the capability to measure body fat is minimal. The general principle behind BIA: More sophisticated instruments for domestic use are available with electrodes for both feet and hands. X-rays of two different energies are used to scan the body, one of which is absorbed more strongly by fat than the other. Body fat may be estimated from the body mass index by formulae derived by Deurenberg and co-workers. Expansions[ edit ] There are several more complicated procedures that more accurately determine body fat percentage. Some measurements are selected, and are applied to a population sample. The accuracy of these estimates is more dependent on a person's unique body fat distribution than on the number of sites measured. In-vivo neutron activation can quantify all the elements of the body and use mathematical relations among the measured elements in the different components of the body fat, water, protein, etc. The term anthropometric refers to measurements made of various parameters of the human body, such as circumferences of various body parts or thicknesses of skinfolds. Marine Corps also rely on the height and circumference method. For convenience, an instrument which must be stepped on will also measure weight. Factors that affect the accuracy and precision of this method include instrumentation, subject factors, technician skill, and the prediction equation formulated to estimate the fat-free mass. Various other components may be independently measured, such as total body potassium. Some models partially address this problem by including age as a variable in the statistics and the resulting formula. Body mass index There also exist formulas for estimating body fat percentage from an individual's weight and girth measurements. This method is used because it is a cheap and convenient way to implement a body fat test throughout an entire service. One way to regard these methods is that they trade accuracy for convenience, since it is much more convenient to take a few body measurements than to submerge individuals in water. Alternatively, an electrode may be held in each hand; calculation of fat percentage uses the weight, so that must be measured with scales and entered by the user. The method is safe, noninvasive, rapid and easy to use. A computer can subtract one image from the other, and the difference indicates the amount of fat relative to other tissues at each point. March Learn how and when to remove this template message The bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA method is a lower-cost from less than one to several hundred US dollars in  but less accurate way to estimate body fat percentage.
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