Further, in accordance with an evolutionary model emphasizing pair-bonding, both men and women will have competing motivational drives for sexual engagement and pair-bond formation. Although the evolutionary reproductive motives produce contradictory motivations, for both short-term sex and long-term commitment, some media scripts apparently do the same. Note that this study asked participants about typical hookups, and although this was informative for general patterns, it does not capture specific factors influencing specific individual scenarios. In a replication and extension of Lambert et al. A review of the literature suggests that these encounters are becoming increasingly normative among adolescents and young adults in North America, representing a marked shift in openness and acceptance of uncommitted sex. In contemporary industrialized cultures, pleasurable sexual behaviors can be divorced from reproduction and used for other purposes, including social standing and simple enjoyment, among others.
In addition to sharing common social venues with heterosexuals, gay men and other men who have sex with men have an expanded array of venues in which hookups may occur. The popularity of hooking up among both men and women presents a problem for approaching human sexuality purely from the perspective of sexual strategies theory. Hookup Culture and Psychological Well-Being The discrepancy between behaviors and desires, particularly with respect to social—sexual relationships, has dramatic implications for physical and mental health. Glenn and Marquardt used an explicitly heteronormative definition for participants: We argue that contemporary hookup culture is best understood as the convergence of evolutionary and social forces during the developmental period of emerging adulthood. Australia Federal Coalition MPs and senators are spending the evening in a party room meeting, debating whether to have a free vote on same-sex marriage. In Paul et al. The managing director of the airport, Stephen Byron, allowed a rainbow light display to be installed across the gateway in support of allowing gay couples to wed. Images of a polymorphous sexuality that decenters the reproductive motive and focuses instead on sexual pleasure are consistently appearing in popular media. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Men voiced alternative definitions that highlighted emotional connection and the potential for committed romantic relationships. Although, in Paul et al. The emergence of sexual hookup culture provides a case of human social behavior through which to explore the relationship and possible interaction between evolved mating psychology and cultural context. Evolutionary-inclined researchers have often used these findings to point to the adaptive nature of sex-specific mating strategies see Schmitt, Other factors may include media consumption, personality, and biological predispositions. That both men and women are engaging in this behavior at such high rates is not consistent with the model. Other behaviors are less ubiquitous. Similarly, Wood and Eagly have endorsed a biosocial model for understanding sex differences cross-culturally that takes into account multiple levels of analyses, including biological constraints alongside social and economic constraints. All photos courtesy of HBO. This paints a picture very different from popular representations of alcohol and substance use in hookups, which are often handled with a detached air of humor. In this view—sexual strategies theory—men prefer as many mates as possible, including short-term sexual encounters that can potentially maximize reproductive output. This suggests that biological factors that contribute to motivating the different contexts of sexual behavior for both men and women may be fairly sexually monomorphic Garcia, Reiber, et al. Hook-up activities may include a wide range of sexual behaviors, such as kissing, oral sex, and penetrative intercourse. In contemporary industrialized cultures, pleasurable sexual behaviors can be divorced from reproduction and used for other purposes, including social standing and simple enjoyment, among others. Research on media portrayals of sexual behavior has documented this pattern as well.
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