A Long Way Home: As the area of implementation expanded, resistance spread from the Soutpansberg to the Ciskei. These tensions provided ample ammunition for wider conflicts. Charles van Onselen published widely on this, grappling with the issue of worker consciousness on the Rhodesian mines. Working neither on the land nor in the mines and heavy industry featured in their aspirations. Reconstruction and Resistance in the Northern Transvaal Johannesburg: Most were repatriated by the Union of South Africa in as changing race politics in British colonies and the newly stabilized mining economy reduced their value to the industry.
By the essentials of a cheap labor system where in place, and it endured for the next fifty years. But the creation of the Native Recruiting Corporation, which operated in South Africa, and the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association, which operated beyond its borders, created a monopoly of recruitment and swung the balance of power even further toward employers. A storekeeper in Limpopo recalled, In the late 70s and early 80s business was good. Burial societies evolved to allow migrants from the same village and area to retain close links with each other and home. Cambridge University Press, From the s onward, the growth of new economic centers, along with burgeoning demand for labor, added a new dimension to labor mobility. Men, Mines and Migration. Most were repatriated by the Union of South Africa in as changing race politics in British colonies and the newly stabilized mining economy reduced their value to the industry. After the first democratic elections took place in and the congress alliance won an overwhelming popular mandate, many analysts expected the system of migrant labor, so fundamental to the architecture of the apartheid state, to be dismantled. Another important development was increasing levels of female migrancy. The failure of successive ANC governments to reverse this trend, despite broad-based local support and international legitimacy, has provided a grim backdrop to the most recent transformations in migrant labor worlds. As a result, the character of migrant labor on the mines changed quickly. As a result, wages were relatively high, and homestead structures played a key part in determining patterns of participation. But jobs—badly paid and hazardous as many were—remained relatively freely available. A new labor market created by the rapid expansion of secondary industry and office employment offered significantly better wages and working conditions. Some unions—perhaps most significantly NUM—also established an increasingly comfortable relationship with mine management, some of their officials becoming increasingly remote from and distrusted by workers. Migrancy and racism fed off each other for over a century, shaping the lives and deaths of millions of people. These are available in the National Archives in Pretoria, but copies are also held in many university libraries in South Africa and internationally. The transition to democracy has thus had very little positive impact on a fundamental part of the system of economic and political discrimination that disfigured the history of South Africa for much of the 20th century. These youth tragically entered into deadly struggle with their urban counterparts. Most of these men came from effectively independent African societies. With defeat came the loss of large areas of land, the imposition of effective pass laws, and heavy taxation in cash. Homestead structures also determined patterns of participation. If the 1,, individuals who had abandoned the search for employment are added into the equation, the total unemployment level rises to a staggering 5,, by Further Reading Arrighi, G. But it is also unique in the extent to which urbanization, industrialization, and rural transformation have been molded by migrant labor.
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