After reading one scenario, participants were asked to select from 60 images, those with whom they would have casual sex. The aim of the current study was to identify how reading scenarios that employ social learning outcomes and a decision making bias would engender choice of less risky sex as measured by the sexual discounting task. Creating a scenario regarding another may be a way to incorporate social learning into antecedent manipulations. He has contracts with various states and the Federal government to conduct evaluations and consult regarding risk assessment. Given the ability to modify monetary delay discounting rate and that discounting for different commodities exhibit hyperbolic shaped functions [ 27 ], changing hypothetical sexual discounting by similar antecedent manipulations may be possible. The participant was asked to identify, of the images selected, an image for each of the following conditions: These results suggest that the anticipation of regret results in risk aversion where an individual faced with two choices is more likely to choose the option with a more certain payoff than an uncertain payoff [ 38 ]. For example, the presence of prospective thought cues [ 22 ], explicit framing of a question [ 23 ], and prior task completion [ 24 ] all alter the subjective value of the presented choices.
They ended up having sex without using protection and Taylor expressed extreme regret. Currently, he practices exclusively as a forensic psychologist and specializes in risk assessment of violent behavior. Below the image, a visual analog scale from 0 to was presented, anchored by the options to have sex now without a condom 0 and to have sex at some delay with a condom The aim of the current study was to identify how reading scenarios that employ social learning outcomes and a decision making bias would engender choice of less risky sex as measured by the sexual discounting task. The researchers created these scenarios such that the number of characters and content were identical apart from than the manipulated variables. Statistical analysis on demographic characteristics gender, race, income, age, marital status, and education revealed no differences among scenario conditions. Questionnaires described below were completed last. In this task, the participant was first presented with 60 images of individuals, both male and female of diverse age and minority statuses and then asked to identify those with whom the participant would have casual sex. In her capacity as a trainer she provides instruction in sex offender risk assessment, the use of the StaticR, report writing and issues in court testimony. During the first partner condition participants experienced, audio instructions were provided to ensure understanding of the task, but the audio portion of the instructions was not presented during the remaining three partner conditions. This procedure for measuring risky sexual behavior, termed sexual discounting, is a valid and reliable way to characterize waiting for condom-protected sex [ 2 , 6 ]. Consideration of Future Consequences Scale CFC This 12—item scale measures the extent of consideration of the future consequences of current behavior, a stable trait, on a 5-point Likert scale. Humans are social animals and can learn from direct experience or the actions of conspecifics. We hypothesized that scenarios with negative health outcomes and regret expression will engender the greatest delay of sexual gratification in the most attractive and least likely to have a sexually transmitted infection partner conditions; that is, under the conditions where participants may be least likely to delay sexual gratification, as demonstrated in two previous studies [ 2 , 8 ]. Taylor is extremely happy and called you jumping for joy. The same image could not be picked for both the most and least partner questions within a condition i. The participant was instructed to click the place on the visual analog scale that best represented their choice. Consistent with previous research, we hypothesized that participants with high sexual discounting rates would also show high scores on the HIV Risk Taking Behavior Scale. Moreover, presenting framing information not related to timing before task completion has also been found to change delay discounting. The next seven questions asked the participant to make a choice between sex now without a condom and sex at some delay 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months with a condom. Delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards can be briefly manipulated by many categories of interventions for review see [ 5 ]. Changing hypothetical sexual discounting using antecedent manipulations could test real world interventions that may change risky decision making. People are likely to make choices in a way that minimize this future regret [ 34 ], thus anticipation of regret facilitates decision making with longer forethought [ 33 ]. We hypothesized that reading a scenario about a similar individual who experienced a negative health consequence of unprotected sexual intercourse will engender greater waiting for condom-protected sex compared to a similar scenario that does not result in a negative health outcome. Examination of Fig 1 reveals a point mass at each end of the AUC distribution.
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