This study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Department of Psychology, Peking University. They were told that they would take part in a series of studies. In economic exchanges, attractive people are often offered more than less attractive ones, as seen in the ultimatum game  and the trust game . Analysis of variance ANOVA was performed on the rating scores Table 1 , with proposer sex, proposer attractiveness, and reasonableness of offer as three within-participant factors and participant sex as a between-participant factor. Being a third-party, the task of participants was to evaluate the reasonableness fairness of proposers' allocations and to express the punishment intention to each proposer. Each rater viewed all the photos in a unique sequence. Based on previous studies  ,  , we predicted that unreasonable offers would incur greater punishment than reasonable offers Hypothesis 1 ; more specifically, attractive people who made unfair offers would receive greater punishment than less attractive people i.
April 7, Copyright: The participants, acting as the interest-free third-party, evaluated the reasonableness of the offers and expressed their intention or lack thereof to punish the proposers. Individuals are more likely to cooperate with those they find attractive in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods games  , . In economic exchanges, attractive people are often offered more than less attractive ones, as seen in the ultimatum game  and the trust game . Participants used the computer mouse to move a cursor on the scale and to confirm their evaluation by clicking the mouse button. These two groups of participants were tested separately, with an interval of about 9 months. As indicated earlier, the experiment was run twice, once with 39 participants and another time with 20 participants. Given that the two runs produced the same pattern of effects, we reported the results of the combined data analysis in the following paragraphs. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. This negative bias against attractive, same-sex people has been shown to be automatic and powerful  —  , and can be found both in interpersonal relationships and in organizational settings  — . These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual. The two subjective ratings had no time limit although the participants regularly completed each task within ms. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The experiment lasted about 30 minutes for each participant. In our experiment, participants observed a Dictator Game DG in which proposers either attractive or less attractive made offers to anonymous recipients. Material and Methods Participants A total of fifty-nine undergraduate and graduate students 30 females, mean age Informed written consent was obtained from each participant before the test. Analysis of variance ANOVA was performed on the rating scores Table 1 , with proposer sex, proposer attractiveness, and reasonableness of offer as three within-participant factors and participant sex as a between-participant factor. Based on previous studies  ,  , we predicted that unreasonable offers would incur greater punishment than reasonable offers Hypothesis 1 ; more specifically, attractive people who made unfair offers would receive greater punishment than less attractive people i. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Previous studies find that humans tend to be highly averse to inequity in asset distribution and are willing to inflict punishment upon individuals who behave unfairly towards others  —  , even when there is no previous relationship or potentially compromising interest  , . Reasonableness rating The results of reasonableness rating clearly confirmed that our manipulation of equity succesfully induced the participants' sense of reasonableness, since participants rated fair offers as far more reasonable than unfair offers. For proposer attractiveness, we asked 14 undergraduate students 7 females, mean age All the photos were taken from a database of undergraduate students about 18 to 22 years old in a third university, and thus the people in photos were unfamiliar to the raters. The manipulation of equity allows us to investigate whether the third-party punishment would be affected by the attractiveness of individuals who make un- fair offers to others in asset distribution, whether the potential beauty premium or penalty would be modulated by the congruence of sex between the proposers and the third-party participants, and to what extent these subjective attractiveness effects can be dissociated from the real perception of fairness in asset distribution.
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