In a now lost portion of his Annals, Tacitus gave a detailed history of Caligula. Such a move would have left both the senate and the Praetorian Guard powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery. Tacitus provides some information on Caligula's life under Tiberius. Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules , Mercury , Venus and Apollo. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists. Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus ; in , during the Sack of Rome , the ashes in the tomb were scattered. Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome and replaced them with his own.
However, it is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally. Health[ edit ] All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder , characterize Caligula as insane. Josephus gives a detailed description of Caligula's assassination. According to Cassius Dio , living emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome. Cassius Dio's work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula's reign. He ordered the execution of Chaerea and of any other known conspirators involved in the death of Caligula. Additionally, given Caligula's unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Scandals[ edit ] Cameo depicting Caligula and a personification of Rome Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger , contempories of Caligula, describe him as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, angry, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex. Mauretania[ edit ] Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Former Roman provinces Thrace and Commagena made client states by Caligula. Gaetulicus , a poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they are lost. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators. In Rome, another statue of himself, of colossal size, was made of gilt brass for the purpose. The cryptoporticus underground corridor beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill where this event took place was discovered by archaeologists in Historiography[ edit ] Fanciful renaissance depiction of Caligula The history of Caligula's reign is extremely problematic as only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived — the works of Philo and Seneca. Cassius Dio wrote an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost. They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the Younger , Drusilla , and Livilla , and say he prostituted them to other men. The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions. Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation. When several client kings came to Rome to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he allegedly cried out the Homeric line: A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome and replaced them with his own. The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Additionally, there are only limited details on later significant events, such as the annexation of Mauretania , Caligula's military actions in Britannia , and his feud with the Roman Senate. Tacitus provides some information on Caligula's life under Tiberius. A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula.
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